Justicia Penal

You can request a copy of your criminal record directly   from the state of New York or you can call the Legal Action Center to schedule an appointment for a criminal record workshop. Criminal record workshops occur every Wednesday and are about 90 minutes long. You need an appointment to attend. You will receive your criminal record about 3-6 weeks after your workshop.

If you have questions after attending the criminal records workshop, you can call any day of the week and ask for a paralegal.

Criminal records often have the following errors: 1) information about the arrest without information on how the case ended; 2) the wrong outcome of your case; 3) information about your conviction appears more than once, making it appear that you have more convictions than you have; 4) an arrest warrant that seems to be still open when it is no longer; 5) records that should be selldados but do not appear. You can read more about sealing records in the next set of questions, “Sealing and Removing Criminal Records.”

It depends on the type of error. Often, you will need to visit or contact the court where your case was heard and obtain an official disposition of the court (an official court record on the case). Sometimes you will have to pay for them, although sometimes the court does not charge the fee if you do not have the ability to pay it. At other times, you may have to ask for a hard copy of court appearances for your case. For cases that are not properly sealed, it is possible that you will have to file a petition to the court. (LAC has request models available in the Resources section.)

The HIRE National Network (National HIRE Network) LAC provides information on government agencies and community organizations that help people with criminal records in other states. Unfortunately, LAC can not provide criminal records services to people living outside of New York State.

Agencies interested in training on criminal history issues should call (212) 243-1313, Monday through Friday during office hours. Please ask to speak with the Training Coordinator.

For more information about your criminal record in New York State, please read:

  • His criminal background in (the state of) New York.

Restraints ending with a juvenile delinquent adjudication (JD) or juvenile offender adjudication (YO) are confidential. This means that the police, the courts and the State maintain the information, but in general they can not share it. However, they can share it with prison staff and, for the young, can share it with the staff of their schools.

The information can be used to execute a protection order and for limited types of employment, including employment with police and military departments.

“Sealing” means that the case does not appear on the copies of the criminal records provided to most employers and others. Fingerprints, palm prints and police photos are also destroyed. Keep in mind that the information does not disappear from your file completely. (Seal is not the same thing as removal.) Delete refers to the complete deletion of a file.

It is against the law for most employers to ask about or use sealed or confidential information. This means that they can not ask about this criminal record, or use it when you are applying for a job or while you are employed. It is also against the law that state government agencies that give occupational licenses ask about or use sealed records or confidential information.

  1. You, if you get a copy of your own criminal record.
  2. Any agency to which you request an arms license.
  3. Your employer, if you are applying for employment as a law enforcement officer or law enforcement agency.
  4. The military, if you request to enlist.
  5. Some jobs that require federal authorization, for example, a job at a bank that requires FDIC approval.
  6. Your probation officer or provisional if you are arrested during parole or probation.
  7. Prosecutors and other officials responsible for public order, if they prove to a court that “justice requires” that they have the information.
  8. Sealed convictions for violations, such as public disorder, are available to anyone who goes to court where the conviction occurred.

to. Charges voided and other cases without conviction
These include:

  • Absolutions;
  • Cancellation of charges;
  • Refusal to prosecute;
  • Cancellations after a “deferment in contemplation of dismissal” (ACD).
  • Rejections of a formal indictment by a grand jury

 

But some cancellations CAN NOT be sealed:

  • Anulaciones a causa de ser condenado por otro cargo u otro caso, (a veces descrito como “cubierto por otro caso”)
  • Anulaciones a causa de “enfermedad o defecto mental” (a veces llamado un anulacion 730).
  • Anulaciones donde el juez encontró en el expediente que “los intereses de la justicia” requiere que el caso no sea anulado y se emitió una orden de “no sellar”.

Desde noviembre de 1991, estos casos generalmente estan sellados automáticamente. Si su caso ocurrió antes de noviembre de 1991 y no está sellado, hay posibilidad que tendria que presentar una moción para sellarlo.

b. La mayoría de las infracciones (excepto posesión ilegal de marihuana)

Una infraccion es una condena por un delito no penal, tales como:

  • Desorden publico;
  • Entrada o permanencia ilícita;
  • El hostigamiento en segundo grado;

Nota: Violaciónes de libertad condicional, probatoria o descargo condicional no son infracciones de “convicciones”.

Pero algunas convicciones infracciones NO PUEDEN ser sellados:

  • Conducir en estado de deterioro de la capacidad;
  • Merodeando en una manera sexualmente aberrante/pervertida;
  • Si el juez ordena que el caso no sea sellado.

Sellar convicciones para infracciones generalmente no ocurre hasta el final de su condena. Esto es por lo general un año despues de la fecha en que fue sentenciado. Desde noviembre de 1991, estos casos generalmente estan sellados automáticamente. Si su caso ocurrió antes de noviembre de 1991 y no está sellado, hay posibilidad que tendria que presentar una moción para sellarlo.

c. Infracciones por posesión ilegal de marihuana

Las condenas por posesión de menos de 7/8 de una onza de marihuana fuera de la vista del público también son infraciones, pero pueden ser tratados de manera diferente de otras violaciónes.

Es posible que tendria que esperar 3 años antes de sellar estas violaciónes.

Desde noviembre de 1991, estos casos generalmente estan sellados automáticamente. Si su caso ocurrió antes de noviembre de 1991 y no está sellado, hay posibilidad que tendria que presentar una moción para sellarlo.

 d. Delincuencia de menores (JDs)

JDs ocurren cuando una persona mayor de 7 años, pero menor de 16 es declarada culpable de un acto que seria considerado un delito si la persona era mayor de 16 años.

Nota: Las personas que tienen 13, 14, o 15 años y están acusadas de ciertos delitos graves pueden ser juzgadas como ofensores juveniles (JOs). JOs son tratados de la misma manera que una convicción de adulto. JOs no son JDs y no pueden ser sellados.

JDs son confidenciales, pero aún están disponibles para el sistema de justicia penal. Esto significa que si usted está condenado más tarde por un delito, el juez puede considerar los registros de JD cuando lo sentencie.

Después de cumplir 16 años de edad, usted puede presentar una mocion ante el tribunal para que sellen su JD, en tanto que no lo declaren culpable de ciertos tipos de delitos graves.

e. Delitos graves y menores limitados

Los sobrevivientes de “tráfico sexual” pueden aplicar a resindir y sellar sus convicciones de prostitución o merodeando con proposito de prostitucion como consecuencia de haber sido traficado. En algunos casos, otras convicciones relacionadas a ser traficado también pueden ser sellados.

Desde octubre de 2009, como parte de la Reforma de la Ley Rockefeller de Drogas, los jueces pueden sellar condicionalmente ciertos delitos graves y menores en las siguientes circunstancias muy limitadas:

  • Cumplio un programa de tratamiento de alcohol o drogas impuesta judicialmente, Y
  • Cumplio cualquier otra pena impuesta después de la finalización del tratamiento, Y
  • No tiene cargos pendientes.

Unfortunately, New York state court sentences can not be eliminated. They can not be completely erased from the records. However, some cases may be sealed, which means that they are kept secret for most purposes. (See above).

You should get a copy of your RAP sheet from New York State. You may request a copy from the Division of Criminal Justice Services (DCJS) by visiting the DCJS website, or you may contact the Legal Action Center at (212) 243-1313 to make an appointment for a RAP workshop.

For more information on arrests and adjudications before the age of 19, please read the LAC publication,

 

Para obtener más información sobre como sellar los casos que resultaron del trafico humano, lea:

LAC una pagina

Para obtener más información acerca del sellado condicional Rockefeller y cómo aplicar, por favor lea la publicación de ALC,

 

 

Si usted tiene convicciones en otros estados, visite la Red Nacional HIRE  del ALC para asistencia en otros estados que puediesen ayudarle. También puede visitar el informe de LAC 2009, Obstáculos para el Reingreso , para aprender más sobre las leyes en otros estados.

Yes, there are many other steps you can take to improve your chances of getting and keeping a job.

First, make sure you know exactly what is in your criminal record. Read “How to Obtain and Correct Your New York State Record (RAP).” Read the above to find out how to get a copy of your criminal record.

Second, you may be eligible to apply for a Certificate of Disability Extent or a Certificate of Good Conduct. For more information on these certificates, please read the sections below on this page, “Certificate of Extent of Good Conduct and Disabilities,” as well as “Step-by-step Certification Guide.”

Finally, read the “Labor Rights” section below for more information on your employment rights. You will learn how to describe your record when filling out a job application, which employers will probably find out about your registration, and what laws protect you from job discrimination. You can also read the ALC guide on Gathering Evidence of Rehabilitation to learn what information you can give your employer and others to persuade them not to use their convictions to reject your application.

These two certificates will help you get work, housing and other benefits despite having a criminal record. Here’s how:

 

  • Algunas leyes de Nueva York dicen que no se puede trabajar en un determinado campo o conseguir una licencia de ocupación debido a su convicción. El certificado elimina esa restricción, a excepción de las fuerzas del orden. Usted ya no será descalificado automáticamente de ese trabajo o licencia ocupacional. Pero   NOTA   – Incluso cuando usted tiene un certificado, el empleador o agencia puede todavía ver su expediente criminal. El certificado sólo significa que usted no puede ser completamente excluido.   También   NOTA   – Trabajos que se consideran oficinas públicas requieren un certificado de buena conducta, no un Certificado de Extención de Incapacidad. La definición de la función pública es complicada. La función pública no sólo se refiere a los puestos elejidos. También incluye una serie de otros puestos de trabajo, incluyendo los bomberos. Llame al LAC para más información.
  • Un certificado puede restaurar otros derechos o privilegios que perdió a causa de su condena. Por ejemplo, la ley de Nueva York, dice que no puede ser nombrado el tutor legal de un niño si usted tiene ciertas condenas por delitos graves. El Certificado elimina esa restricción. La ley de Nueva York también dice que las personas en libertad condicional no pueden votar (aunque otras personas con convicciones lo pueden hacer), pero el certificado puede restaurar el derecho al voto. Para obtener más información, por favor lea “Derecho al Voto” FAQ del ALC.
  • Los certificados proporcionan evidencia (una “presunción”) de la rehabilitación. Ellos deben pesar a su favor al momento de solicitar empleo, concesión de licencias o vivienda.
  • New York employers should consider your certificate when deciding whether to award you a job. This is also the case for government agencies that grant licenses to work in certain jobs.

Note: Exeption certificates and certificates of good conduct can not restore gun rights to persons convicted of an AI class felony or violent felony.

A certificate can not expunge, erase or seal your conviction. A certificate does not mean that employers and others will not be able to see or use your criminal conviction or that you do not have to disclose it when asked. The information may still appear on a background check.

No, a certificate is not a pardon for your conviction.

The two certificates have very similar impacts. The only difference is that the Certificate of Disability Waiver can not restore the right to hold public office. A public office means designated or specially appointed government jobs, does not mean all positions in government. You can call the LAC if you want to know if a job is a public job. Only a Certificate of Good Conduct can restore the right to hold public office. Certificates also have different eligibility requirements and application processes, which are discussed in the following questions.

Yes, if you have any misdemeanor and / or felony convictions. Depending on the number of felony convictions you have, there may be a waiting period before you can apply. For more information about the application process, see the “Step-by-Step Guide to Obtaining Certificates” from this FAQ page.

It depends on your conviction story. See the “Step-by-Step Guide to Obtaining Certificates” on this FAQ page to find out which one applies to you.

Not in most cases. You may only be eligible for one or the other unless you apply to a public office or gun rights.

It depends on what kind of convictions you have, what your sentence was and where your conviction happened. See the “Step-by-Step Guide to Obtaining Certificates” on this FAQ page to learn how to apply.

You must obtain a copy of your RAP from the state of New York. You can request a copy of the Division of Criminal Justice Services (DCJS), or you can call the LAC to schedule an appointment for our RAP workshop on Wednesdays.

  1. If you are not sure, get a copy of your criminal record. You can order it directly from the state or you can call the ALC to make an appointment for the ALC RAP workshop, which is on Wednesdays.
  2. If you think you have a record in other states or in federal court, you should also ask for an FBI RAP report .

You can also get a copy of your record from the other states where you were arrested. To find out how to obtain these records, visit the LAC website of   National HIRE Network , select the state, then look for information about the state’s “criminal record repository.”

  1. Remember to include crimes in other states and federal crimes.
  2. Important: If you were convicted of more than one charge in the same courtroom on the same day, it is usually considered as a single felony for the certificate.
  1. Only the Certificate of Good Conduct can be requested. This certificate will cover all your convictions.
  2. It can only be requested through the Department of Corrections and Community Supervision (DOCCS). You can get a request on the DOCCS website
  3. There is a waiting period, which depends on your most serious crime (not your last one).
    • For a felony A or felony B, the waiting period is 5 years.
    • For a felony C, D or E, the waiting period is 3 years.
    • The waiting period began the last time you left jail or prison (on parole or reached the maximum) or the date of your last criminal conviction if you were not incarcerated, whichever was the last.
  4. The waiting period began the last time you left jail or prison (on parole or reached the maximum) or the date of your last criminal conviction if you were not incarcerated, whichever was the last.
  1. You have the right to apply for the Disability Waiver Certificate, unless you want to restore gun rights or public office rights.
  2. Relief Certificates cover only one conviction. You can apply for certificates for each of your convictions.
  3. Si usted sirvió tiempo en prisión estatal por una felonía en Nueva York, solicite al Departamento de Correcciones y Supervisión Comunitaria (DOCCS) un certificado por la felonía. Usted puede obtener una solicitud en la página web de DOCCS.
  4. Si usted tiene un crimen o un delito en otro estado o en una corte federal, solicite al Departamento de Correcciones y Supervisión Comunitaria (DOCCS) los certificados de estas convicciones. Usted puede obtener una solicitud en la página web de DOCCS.
  5. Si usted sólo sirvio libertad condicional o tiempo en una cárcel local por una felonia en Nueva York, solicite el certificado al secretario del tribunal de la corte donde le condenaron.
  6. For all misdemeanors New York, requesting the certificate to the clerk of the court where he was sentenced.

Employers may ask about criminal convictions, but not if they are sealed. Employers could not preach about:

  • Arrests that do not lead to conviction, such as acquittals and dismissals,
  • Sealed violations – which are non-criminal offenses,
  • Sealed minor and major offenses, and
  • Adjudications of Juvenile Delinquents (YO).

Employers can ask about open (pending) arrests.

It depends. It is unlawful to deny you work or fire you because of a criminal record, unless the record is “directly related” to the work in question, or unless hiring creates a “reasonable risk” for the safety of persons or property. This protection is found in Article 23-A of the New York Corrections Act and in the New York State and City Human Rights Laws.

It is also illegal for most employers to deny you a job or fire you based on:

  • Arrests that do not lead to conviction, such as acquittals and dismissals,
  • Sealed violations – which are non-criminal offenses,
  • Sealed offenses and felonies, and
  • Adjudications of Juvenile Delinquents (YO).

But if you have an open arrest, an employer may consider it.

La ley federal también ofrece cierta protección frente a la discriminación si es afroamericano o hispano. La Comisión de los Estados Unidos de Igualdad de Oportunidades de Empleo (EEOC) dice que negarse a contratar a personas a causa de sus antecedentes penales puede ser una forma de discriminación racial porque los afroamericanos y los hispanos son arrestados y condenados a tasas mucho más altas que los blancos. Los empleadores sólo pueden negarse a contratar personas por causa de antecedentes penales si es “relacionado con el trabajo” y “coherente con las necesidades del negocio.”

Outside of New York, your rights depend on the laws of the state where you work or wish to work. Federal law also offers some protection against discrimination if you are African American or Hispanic. The United States Commission on Equal Employment Opportunity (EEOC) says that refusing to hire people because of a criminal record can be a form of racial discrimination because African Americans and Hispanics are arrested and sentenced at much higher rates Than whites. Employers can only refuse to hire people because of a criminal record if it is “work related” and “consistent with business needs.”

Yes, you must tell the truth. While it is tempting to lie, hoping that the employer can not find out about your criminal record, most employers carry criminal background checks. They probably will notice anyway. If he lies directly or leaves without information and the employer finds out, the employer can legally refuse to hire him and legally can dismiss him because of the lie. This is so even if your criminal record itself should not disqualify you from work.

You can take many steps to improve your chances, including correcting mistakes in your file, obtaining Disability Waiver Certificates or good behavior, demonstrating your rehabilitation. Information on how to carry many of these steps can be found on this page.

Yes, in New York State, people with a criminal record can vote unless they are:

  • Currently imprisoned for a felony, or
  • On parole and do not have either a Certificate of Disability Waiver or a Certificate of Good Conduct.

Everyone with a criminal conviction can vote!

In New York State, you can vote if:

  • Is on parole – even if you have a felony conviction.
  • Are on probation and have a “Certificate of Disability Waiver” or a “Certificate of Good Conduct.”
  • Was convicted of a felony but not sentenced to state prison.
  • Was charged with a felony, but has not yet been convicted – even if you are in jail awaiting trial.
  • Was only convicted of misdemeanors – even if you are in a local jail.
  • Has already served his maximum prison term.
  • Was released from parole.
  • Was pardoned or exonerated.

In New York, you do not need a “Certificate of Disability Waiver” or other document in order to register to vote.

Yes, even if you are in jail, you are allowed to vote in the state of New York, as long as you are not serving a felony conviction. However, in order to vote:

  • You must request an absentee ballot.
  • The postmark must be marked no later than the day before the election
  • Once you receive the ballot, put the address of your permanent home on the registration form (not the address of the jail).

It depends. In 2009, New York changed its criminal sentencing laws to allow for greater diversion towards treatment of individuals with a history of addiction rather than imprisonment.

For more information about changes to New York drug laws, please read the LAC publication,

Changes to the Rockefeller drug laws and what they mean to you .

Provee información básica sobre los certificados de asistencia por discapacidades (certificates of relief from disabilities) o certificados de buena conducta (certificates of good conduct) del estado de Nueva York. Explica que son y quién es elegible. También está disponible en inglés. Dura 4 minutos. Parte 2 está en desarrollo y explicará cómo aplicar. Ver aquí.

¿Cómo puede mostrarle a empleadores, un propietario, y otros que sus antecedentes penales (récord criminal) no definen quien es hoy? Este folleto provee consejo detallado para obtener pruebas de su rehabilitación – cambios positivos que ha hecho desde sus convicción(es).

Uso de Sustancias

It is usually illegal, assuming you are qualified for the job. Two federal laws, the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, prohibit employment discrimination of persons with disabilities. Addiction and other substance use disorders are often considered as “disabilities” under these laws. For New Yorkers, the New York State Laws and the City of New York for human rights have similar protections. If you live outside of New York, your state may also have antidiscrimination laws that protect people against discrimination based on addiction.

Yes, if you are qualified for the job. Anti-discrimination laws protect you from discrimination if you have a current alcohol disorder. For example, if you apply for a job and tell your employer that you are in treatment for alcoholism, the employer is not authorized to deny you work if you otherwise qualify for it. But it is legal for your boss to fire you for not doing your job or breaking the rules of the workplace. For example, if your job says that you have to call to report sick days and you do not, your boss can legally fire you, even if your alcoholism is the reason you were sick.

No. If you are “currently” using drugs illegally, you are not protected by anti-discrimination laws. For example, if you tell a potential employer that you are in drug treatment but have not used drugs illegally since last month, courts would probably find that the employer was allowed to deny work based on their illegal use ” Current “drug. Illegal use is considered “current” if it is sufficient for someone to reasonably believe that it is a recent continuing problem.

Yes. To learn about these protections, please read the “Assisted Medication Treatment: Methadone, Buprenorphine, and Naltrexone” section of this FAQ page.

If you suffer from alcoholism, you have the right to a “reasonable accommodation,” such as free time from work to seek treatment. If your employer allows employees to take time off for treatment of other health conditions, the employer must allow you to take time off for the treatment of addiction. The only reason your boss would not have to give you leave is whether it would be too expensive or too much of a burden. But you usually must apply for leave of absence, and you may need to give proof of your doctor. You may also be entitled to take unpaid leave under the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA).

Tenga cuidado si usted necesita tiempo libre para el tratamiento de drogas. Su empleador puede legalmente negar el tiempo libre e incluso podría despedirlo. Esto se debe a que los empleadores están autorizados a despedirlo, y no contratarlo, y por lo contrario tratarlo negativamente si usted “actualmente” usa drogas ilegalmente. Sin embargo, muchos empleadores optan por permitir a la gente a tomar las excedencias para el tratamiento de drogas. Usted debe saber la política de su empleador antes de decirles acerca de su uso de drogas.

These questions are illegal. Employers can not ask about disabilities, including addiction, until they are offered a job. However, employers are allowed to ask about the use of currently illegal drugs or in the past and consumption of alcohol. But they can not ask if you have ever been diagnosed with a drug or addiction to alcohol , or anything that oblige to disclose that you have been addicted to drugs or alcohol. Questions like “How many times have you used drugs in the past?” Or “how many alcoholic drinks do you have in a week?” Are not legal. But questions such as “Do you drink alcohol?” Are legal.

After offering you a job, prospective employers may require you to undergo a medical examination or answer questions about your medical history. This includes questions such as whether you have ever been diagnosed with an addiction to drugs or alcohol or another substance use disorder.

Employers sometimes ask illegal questions. If you live in New York and you want advice on how to answer an illegal question, you can call the New York State Human Rights Division at (212) 870-8400; If you live in New York City, you may also call the New York City Commission on Human Rights at (212) 306-7500. Or you may call the Legal Action Center at (212) 243-1313.

If they ask you about your addiction to drugs or alcohol after receiving a job offer, you must tell the truth for a very practical reason: employers that they know you lied can legally refuse work or can Fire him for lying.

If you are asked about your drug or alcohol addiction before getting a job offer, the question is illegal. But it is difficult to know the best answer. If you do not disclose information about your addiction in response to an illegal question , and the employer later learns the truth, the employer may deny you the job and may fire you. That could be illegal discrimination, but very few courts have addressed this issue. It is a good idea to seek legal advice before answering any illegal questions.

Generally not. People who are treated for opiate addiction are protected by laws that prohibit discrimination based on disability. Employers can not take action against you if you are “otherwise qualified” for work. That means that you meet working standards, such as education and experience, and you can perform the essential functions of the job. For more information about laws that protect people in recovery from addiction and discrimination at work, please read the “Discrimination in Employment” section of this Substance Use Page, FAQ section.

If you take the prescribed methadone, there is a good chance it will show up on a drug test. Buprenorphine (such as Suboxone) may appear if the employer is testing specifically for it; Naltrexone (like Vivitrol) will probably not be released on a drug test. If you take the prescribed medicine to treat your addiction and you must take a drug test, you must provide the documentation, such as a letter from your doctor, showing that you are receiving substitution treatment and take the medication legally prescribed. Do not lie if you are asked about your prescription medications. An employer can not discriminate against you because you are taking medicine against addiction or because you have a history of addiction. However, an employer may refuse to hire you,

You will not be eligible to obtain a license to drive state-to-state road trucks , which allows you to drive between different states if you take methadone. The US Department of Transportation forbids it. Intra-State road transport licenses , which allows you to drive within a state, are governed by state law. The State of New York usually follows federal law and does not allow people taking methadone to obtain a road transport license.

If a probation officer or a judge has a policy that prohibits people from taking anti-addiction medication even if a doctor recommends it, this may violate anti-discrimination laws such as the Americans with Disabilities Act. If this happens to you To you, you may call the Legal Action Center at (212) 243-1313.

For more information about laws that protect you from being discriminated against because you receive medicine to treat your opiate addiction, please read:

For additional information, please check out our resources for drug treatment.

Este folleto da a las personas en tratamiento o recuperándose, tan bien como sus aliados, la información necesaria para luchar contra la discriminación. Le da una descripción de las leyes federales que prohíben la discriminación en el empleo, vivienda y  contra las personas con problemas de alcohol y drogas

VIH / SIDA

Por lo general, sí. Si usted está calificado para el trabajo, es ilegal que los empleadores le niegen el trabajo o darle un trato diferente porque usted tiene VIH o SIDA. VIH y SIDA son considerados “discapacidad” bajo las leyes que hacen ilegal discriminar a las personas con discapacidad. Esto es cierto incluso para la mayoría de los puestos de trabajo de atención de salud.

Si usted tiene una discapacidad, usted tiene el derecho a una “adaptación razonable” en el lugar de trabajo. Esto puede incluir más tiempo libre por razones médicas. También puede incluir un cambio en su horario de trabajo o de deberes de empleo si es necesario para que usted pueda hacer su trabajo. Pero su jefe no tendría que darle la facilidad si sería demasiado costoso o demasiada carga. Tenga en cuenta que por lo general tiene que pedir la facilidad, y puede que tenga que presentar prueba escrita de su médico.  Esto podría incluir la divulgación de su estatus de VIH.

No antes de ofrecerle el trabajo.  Antes de una oferta de trabajo, es ilegal preguntar si usted tiene alguna condición médica, incluyendo el VIH o SIDA. Asimismo, los empleadores no pueden preguntar sobre sus medicamentos ya que podrían revelar su estado serológico. Pero es legal para los empleadores preguntar si usted tiene una condición física o mental que podría hacer que usted no pueda hacer el trabajo. También es legal que un empleador pida que usted tome una prueba de drogas.

Después de que un empleador le hace una oferta de trabajo que está condicionada en pasar un examen médico o en llenar un formulario médico, el empleador puede legalmente requerir que pase un examen médico. Pero un empleador sólo puede hacer esto si es que a todas las personas que le ofrecieron la misma posición estan requeridas a tomar un examen médico. Es legal preguntar sobre su estado de VIH y sus medicamentos para el VIH durante este examen médico.

Eso depende. Una vez que comience el trabajo, un empleador puede exigirle un examen médico o solicitar información médica  sólo si el examen o las preguntas son “en consonancia con las necesidades del negocio relacionado con el trabajo.” Esto sucede generalmente cuando un empleado tiene problemas de rendimiento en el trabajo, y es razonable que el empleador crea que un problema médico esté contribuyendo a los problemas de trabajo.

Le aconsejamos que diga la verdad, por una razón muy práctica. Su empleador podría aprender fácilmente su estado de VIH a través de un examen médico o una prueba de drogas. Si el empleador se entera de que usted mintió, es legal que el empleador le niege el trabajo por mentir. También es legal despedirlo a usted, incluso si usted ha sido un buen empleado. Por otro lado, si usted dice la verdad y un empleador lo rechaza o lo despide porque usted tiene el VIH/SIDA, puede desafiar esta discriminación laboral ilegal.

Eso depende. Si su empleador obtiene la información a partir de un examen médico requerido o de un programa de salud voluntaria en el lugar de trabajo, debe mantenerse confidencial. Su empleador también debe mantener la confidencialidad de cualquier información sobre el VIH que recibio con su consentimiento escrito. Pero si usted o sus compañeros de trabajo informan de cualquier otra manera a su empleador sobre su estado de VIH, el empleador no tiene que mantener la información confidencial. Por ejemplo, si usted le dice a su jefe que usted está molesto porque recién se entera de que tiene el VIH, su jefe no tendría que mantener esa información confidencial.

Sólo si usted le dio consentimiento por escrito a su médico para revelar esa información. La ley de Nueva York requiere que la mayoría de los proveedores de salud y servicios sociales mantengan la información sobre el VIH confidencial. Incluso si la ley le permite a su empleador exigir un examen médico, su médico no puede revelar que usted tiene VIH o SIDA sin su consentimiento por escrito. Pero cuidado: si usted no está de acuerdo con la divulgación, y su empleador tiene el derecho legal a esta información, el empleador puede legalmente negarle el trabajo. Haga leer a su médico los formularios médicos cuidadosamente para asegurarse que la información sobre VIH realmente es requerida.

n Nueva York, llame a la División de Derechos Humanos del Estado de Nueva York al (888) 392-3644, Comisión de la Ciudad de Nueva York sobre los Derechos Humanos al (212) 306-7450, Comisión de Igualdad de Oportunidades de Empleo al (800) 669-4000, o al Centro de Acción Legal al (212) 243-1313.  Hay fechas límite, así que llame pronto apenas después suceda el acto ilegal!

Visite Recursos para obtener más información sobre estos temas.

¿Alguna vez se ha preguntado si debe divulgar su estatus de VIH – o el estatus de un paciente –  cuando está llenando formularios médicos para empleo, la escuela, un campamento, u otras actividades? Este folleto provee consejo si debe y como puede divulgar información de salud confidencial.

¿Tiene interés en trabajar pero está preocupado sobre la divulgación de su estatus de VIH a su empleador? ¿Necesita un ajuste razonable (reasonable accomodation) en su trabajo? Este folleto responde a las preguntas comunes sobre el VIH y empleo.

Este folleto explica quien tiene que mantener su estatus de VIH privado y como puede proteger su confidencialidad de VIH.

¿Necesita más ayuda?

Si necesita más ayuda legal, por favor visite las diversas áreas de nuestra sección Que Hacemos.

Ayuda con problemas sobre Justicia Penal.

Ayuda con problemas sobre uso de Sustancias.

 

Si necesitas más ayuda y vive en el estado de Nueva York, llámenos al (212) 243-1313. Si es una persona quien vive con el VIH/SIDA o es afecta/o por el VIH/SIDA, por favor lea más sobre nuestros servicios gratuitos. (¡Protéjase! Conozca sus Derechos.) También ofrecemos servicios de apoyo a familias en la ciudad de Nueva York que son afectadas por el VIH/SIDA, por medio de nuestra asociación con El Centro de la Familia (The Family Center).

El sitio web del Centro de Acción Legal es visible en español, francés, y chino (simplificado) por medio de Google Translate.

Estas preguntas frecuentes son para información genera, no es asesoramiento legal para su situación específica. Para consejería legal, puede llamar al Centro de Acción Legal al (212) 243-1313 para ver si usted es elegible para nuestros servicios legales.

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